Seville Kingdom At The Age Of Bani Abbad And Their Internal And External Relation Ships
Valanteana Suleiman Afaneh
This research aimed at discussing one of the most complicated periods of the history of Andalusia. This area, known as the Taifs Period, was characterized by overlapping incidents and diverse historical narration. The Taifs Period came after the collapse of the Ummayyad Caliphate in Cordoba in the year 422 Hijri (1030 AD.) and the disintegration of the Andalusian State into several city-states and Taifs which were known as the Taifs Kingdoms exceeding twenty -kingdoms. This area was considered as a period of weakness, disintegration and struggle among the Muslim kings who busied themselves in luxurious life, internal disputes, and their struggle with each other instead of defending their country against their common enemy that were getting stronger and stronger day by day. The enemy increased its power from the weakness and internal wars of the Muslim kings. Consequently, the Christian Kingdoms in the north became stronger and united themselves in one - unified kingdom during the 5th Hijri Century, the 1 Century AD. These kingdoms were led by the Kingdom of Castile and Leon. The Seville Kingdom, established by Banu Abbad, was one of the strongest Taifs Kingdoms at that time. .Banu Abbad took as their responsibility to unify Andalusia under their flag to fight the Christian kingdoms in the north. However, Banu Abbad committed the same deadly mistake that other Andalusia kings committed. They also sought assistance from the kings of Castile and Leon against the sons of their II race and religion from Andalusia and al-Murabiteen, a mistake that hastened their end. Due to the numerous and overlapping incidents, this research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one dealt with the geographical and historical aspects of the Seville Kingdom. It is considered as a geo-historical study of Seville's geographical location including its rivers, weather and areas. It investigated its development beginning from the first Islamic conquest by Musa bin Nusair until it became a large kingdom at the time of Bani Abbad. This chapter also discussed the .economic aspects including agriculture and industry that made Seville one of the most powerful economic kingdoms in Andalusia. In addition, it discussed the demographic elements of Seville and their customs and traditions. Chapter Two. In this Chapter, I discussed the effects of the internal disputes in Cordoba upon Seville and its inhabitants in addition to the effects of the Barbar disturbance upon Seville and its role in this disturbance. Then I discussed the origins of Bani Abbad and their attempts to split from Cordoba taking advantage of the internal dis.putes in Cordoba regarding the Caliphate. Then the Judge Abul-Qasem Bin Abbad was able to rule Seville. He managed to do so by making use of the economic situation since he owned two thirds of the Seville lands and villages, in addition to the prestigious position he enjoyed among the population of Seville. Then, I discussed the following step that Banu Abbad took to enlarge the area of their kingdom at the expense of neighboring kingdoms. Banu Abbad launched severe wars against their neighbors until Seville made its largest area during the reign of alMu'taded Bin Abbad who is considered the real founder of Banu Abbad State. Chapter Three: This chapter deals with the political transformation of the Seville Kingdom. After becoming one of the largest and most powerful kingdom of the Taifs kingdoms, the Seville Kingdom began to renew its relations with the Christian kingdoms in the north. These relations were so eminent during that period that no Andalusian king could ignore. The nature of these relations was different according to the weakness or strength of the Seville kingdom. During its time of strength, the Seville kingdom was able to impose its will. However, during the time of its weakness, it had to pay tributes and to give up some of its lands. Chapter Four: This chapter discussed the relationship that connected Bani Abbad with al-Murabiteen. I started this discussion by giving a brief account of the establishment of al-Murabiteen State and its conquests until Yusuf Bin Tashifeen arrived at the throne. Then I discussed the relationship between Morocco and Andalusia, and the position of Bani Abbad regarding the developments taking place in Morocco. As alMurabiteen State reached its zenith, the Christian kingdoms began to threaten the Seville Kingdom and other Andalusian kingdoms. As a result of the weakness and disintegration of Muslims and their kings, and the fall of Toledo and the frequent aggressions against the Seville Kingdom, the relationship between Bani Abbad represented by Al-Mu'tamed Bin Abbad and al-Murabiteen represented by Yusuf Bin Tashifeen began by making. correspondence and sending delegations to Bin Tashifeen. In addition, Al-Mutamed visited Bin Tashifeen and requested him to enter Andalusia and Seville to save them from the claws and greed of Alfonso VI. In Chapter Four, I discussed in details the correspondence and relationship between Yusuf Bin Tashifeen and Al-Mu'tamed. However, this relationship turned to become a desire to control Seville and the whole area of Andalusia. Due to the weakness of Bani Abbad in Seville IV and other Muslim Kings in Andalusia, the jurisprudents and inhabitants of Seville played an eminent role in dismissing Bani Abbad and inviting Al-Murabiteen to enter Seville and all of Andalusia. Chapter Five is an analytical study of the, most important factors that hastened the fall of Bani Abbad, made al-Murabiteen enter Seville, arrest Al-Mu'tamed and his family and banish them to Aghmat. It was Al-Mu'tained Bin Abbad's- attempts to seek assistance from the Christians against Al-Murabiteen that made the direct cause of their fall and vanishing by al-Murabiteen.- In addition, their diversion, recreation and busying themselves in building palaces instead of fighting the enemies of Islam and Muslims made them an easy prey for their enemies of Christians from the north.