Study on Leadership Behavior of English Grade Students Attending UNRWA Schools in the Ramallah Area

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سمر حسن عودة العمري
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The subject of leadership and leadership training is considered to be an important new area, receiving much attention from educators. Due to the topics' importance, that our leader's are the ones capable of directing the work of groups in accordance with the fundamental principles involved. If we want to enhance our group work then effective leadership methods must be thoroughly looked at. This study focused on discovering those students who possess leadership potential (behavior) traits, by conducting, measuring, and implementing a leadership behavior test on them. In this study the researcher aimed at testing the level of leadership behavior traits measured against varying variables (e.g., sex, place of residence, where the subject lies in the family structure, father's level of education, mothers' level of education). The study sampled 255 students; of which 112 were male and 143 were females. The sample group randomly selected from a total of four UNRWA schools in the Ramallah area. Two of the schools were situated in Refugee camps while the remaining two were located in the town of Ramallah. The selected random sample represents 30% of total numbers of eighth grade students in the four schools. This leadership behavioral study used the Standard Leadership Behavior Traits designed by Dr. Nariman Rifai. Adjustments made to certain sections of the methodology tool were conducted to meet the Palestinian environment, that is to reduce cultural bias. The standard measurement composed of 32 positions or traits, signifying a particular leadership behavior. The questionnaire once collected, statistically analyzed, then the assumptions were looked at respectively, using the following. 1. The first analyzed assumption used the t-test, with only two variables present. 2. The third, fourth and fifth assumptions using ANOVA, with more than two variables The results indicated that there are similarities between the appearances of the various leadership behaviors. For example, unity -- joining efforts with followers is the highest trait appearance of those displaying leadership behavior skills; whereby the number of students with high levels of leadership in unity or solidarity reached 186 from a total of 255, almost 73%. Whereas the behavior receiving the lowest trait appearance was trust The number the students scoring low on this trait were 150 from 255, almost 59%. The results associated with the assumptions pointed to the following: 1. While there are similarities in the leadership behavior traits of males and females, at least to a certain degree, they do differ in a number of behaviors. 2. A distinction made in relation to leadership behavior and place of residence, where it was evident that leaders' behavior tendencies for students living in refugee camps are higher than students living in town (city) 3.The results also indicate there is not such an effect of having the leadership behavior in the family order.. 4. When the fourth and fifth assumptions were added it was realized from the results that there is relation between the level of leadership behavior when compared to the level of education of either parents. RECOMMENDATIONS: A. Within the Family 1) Placing emphasis on upbringing and dealing with children in a democratic spirit whereby they are allowed to discuss issues closely with parents, and are allowed to bear responsibilities. 2) Interest in training children to exercise leadership behavior within the family and through the parents. That is achieved by placing the children in different situations where they can become capable of being leaders. B. Within Schools 1) Placing emphasis and paying attention on discovering leadership in students and providing them with all the means to enhance and develop their capabilities. 2) Taking an interest in establishing selected classroom students councils with the aim of supporting, enhancing, and training students on leadership. 3) Giving each student the opportunity to take on the role of the leader for two or three days and then following a prize to the best leader. This would help discover some leadership traits in new students. 4) Taking an interest in providing various activities in schools that would lead to the development of leadership behavior in all areas and activities. 5) Designating school classes where teachers introduce different types of leaders to pull the attention of the class, their students. Offering the students counseling sessions, and training them on the art of effective leadership and leadership behavior. 6) Providing leadership training programs for teachers whereby they in turn could act as counselors for the students while they undergo leadership training. 7) Teachers must provide reinforcement in addition to advice to students highlighting how the students leadership potential can be achieved. C. Within Society 1) Placing a strong emphasis on primary education as it is the source of our infrastructure for all education; providing all necessary requirements to achieve the wholes tic development of children (physical, mental, school, emotional). 2) Highlighting the accomplishments of leaders in an effort to give the students examples and role models. 3) Establishing training institutions and social groups in every geographic area in order to provide opportunities for students to exhibit their talents and to train in the area on leadership in different areas irrespective of their area of interest.
يعتبر موضوع القيادة والتدريب على القيادة من الموضوعات الحديثة والتي يركز عليها المربون هذه الأيام نظرا لأهمية هذا الموضوع لأن القادة هم الذيم يستطيعون توجيه عمل الجماعة حسب الأسس والقواعد المناسبة. وقد هدفت هذ الدراسة إلى الكشف عن الطلاب الذين يسلكون سلوكا قياديا من خلال تطبيق مقياس السلوك القيادي عليهم، كما هدفت الدراسة مستوى السلوك القيادي اعتمادا على متغيرات (الجنس، مكان السكن، ترتيب التلميذ في الاسرة، مستوى تعليم الاب، مستوى تعليم الام). وقد اشتملت عينة الدراسة على (255) تلميذ وتلميذة منهم (112) تلميذ و (143) تلميذة اختيروا بطريقة عشوائية من تلاميذ وتلميذات (4) مدارس من مدارس وكالة الغوث في منطقة رام الله اثنتان من المخيم،واثنتان من المدينة، وتمثل العينة المختارة (305) من مجتمع الدراسة البالغ عدد افرادها (850) تلميذ وتلميذة. ولدراسة السلوك القيادي استخدم مقياس السلوك القيادي من قبل ناريمان رفاعي (1988) وعدلت بعض الفقرات لتتناسب مع البيئة الفلسطينة، ويتكون المقياس من (32) موقفا كل موقف يدل على مظهر واحد للسلوك القيادي. وبعد جمع البيانات تم تحليلها ومعالجتها وقد تم فحص فرضيات الدراسة باستخدام ما يلي: - الفرضية الاولى والثانية تم استخدلم اختبار (T- TEST) وذلك لوجود متغيرين فقط. - الفرضية الثالثة والرابعة والخامسة تم استخدام تحليل التباين الاحادي (ANOVA) وذلك وجود أكثر من متغيرين. وأشارت نتائج هذه الدراسة إلى ان هنالك تباين مظاهر السلوك القيادس المختلفة، فمثلا يتبين أن التلاحم مع الأتباع هو أعلى مظهر من مظاهر السلوك القيادي حيث بلغ عدد الطلاب الذين كانوا من مستوى قيادي مرتفع في هذا المظهر (186) من (255) تلميذ ونسبته تشكل (73%) وأن أدنى مظهر من مظاهر السلك القيادي هو الأمانة حيث بلغ عدد الطلاب الذين كانوا من مستوى قيادى منخفض في هذا المظهر (150) من (255) طالب ونسبته تشكل (59%. وأشارت النتائج المتعلقة بالفرضيات إلى ما يلي:- أن هناك تشابها بين الذكور والاناث في درجات السلوك القيادى ولكن يختلفون في بعض مظاهر هذا السلوك، بينما وجد اختلاف بين ظهور السلوك القيادي ومكان السكن حيث تبين ان التلاميذ القاطنين في المدينة. وكذلك أشارت النتائج أنه ليس هنالك اختلافا في درجات السلوك القيادي وترتيب التلميذ في الاسرة، وأما بالنسبة للفرضيات الرابعة والخامسة فلقد دلت النتائج ان هنالك علاقة بين درجات السلوك القيادي لدى التلاميذ وبين مستوى تعليم الوالدين.