The Effects of Ficus Sycomorus Extracts on Human Keratinocytes as a Potential Antipsoriasis Therapy
حنايشة, ريم عدنان نمر
An-Najah National University
Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative inflammatory skin disease that leads to over proliferation in keratinocytes. Psoriasis which affects 2 to 3% of the population is caused by several factors including, genetics, epigenetics, environments and lifestyles as well as stress, drugs, infections and trauma. Nitric oxide is a principal biomarker for psoriasis. Since eternity, human used plants and natural product as source of food and medicines for treating and preventing the diseases. One of which FS which is used in the tradition for the treatment of psoriasis. Aim: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic, cytostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties of FS leaves and fruits water-ethanol extracts on the keratinocytes cell line (HaCaT) and THP-1 derived macrophages. Methods: Cell viability for both monoculture and co-culture was conducted by MTT assay. In addition to that LPS-induced THP-1-derived macrophages and keratinocytes cell line (HaCaT) as monocultures and as co-cultures were used to assess the effects of the FS plant extracts on the production of pro-inflammatory NO by Griess reagent. Moreover, phytochemical analysis of FS fruit and leaf extracts was carried out. Results: Obtained results are revealed that there is no significant difference between all examined concentrations of the FS plant parts under the study on both investigated monocultures and co-culture based on the conducted statistical analysis (p< 0.05) with no variations between FS leaf and fruit extracts. However, significant cytostatic effect of FS fruit extract on HaCaT cells (p < 0.05) at all studied concentrations with more pronounced impact at 1000 and 500 µg/ml. This effect was higher on the HaCaT monoculture system than on THP-1 in concentration dependent manner with cell viability of 69.6% at concentration of 31.8 µg/ml reaching to 57% at concentration of 1000 µg/ml. While their co-cultures showed significant decrease in cell viability was at 250,500 and 1000 µg/ml with 64.2%, 63.1% and 64.2%, respectively. This recorded pronounced cytostatic effect is similar between leaf and fruit extract types. Therefore, salient noteworthy cytostatic effect of the FS fruit and leaf extracts is more than the cytotoxic one on both HaCaT cell line monoculture and co-culture cell lines system. Similarly, is observed in the FS fruit extract effect on THP-1 cell line monoculture in concentration dependent manner. On the contrary is recognized by the FS extract effect on THP-1 cell line monoculture as more cytotoxic effect is recognized rather than cytostatic one in concentration dependent manner. In addition, a scavenging power of FS fruit and leaf extracts was documented by the NO production reduction. The marked NO inhibitory activity on macrophages was observed by FS fruits at 250 μg/ml as it caused only 71.46% production in respect to the positive control. So, the fruits extract had resulted in NO inhibitory activities of 28.54% and 16.57% at 250, 125 μg/ml, respectively. While, the FS leaves extract revealed the NO inhibition of 18.64 and 16.24% at 250, 125 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the qualitative phytochemicals evaluation of both FS fruit and leaf extracts indicated the presence of glycoside, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. None the less, minor variations between both extract types were recorded in those carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids as well as terpenoids are found in FS fruit extract only. While, reducing sugars are in leaf extract only. Alkaloids are found in neither fruit nor leaf extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this in vitro study indicated that fruits and leaves extract from FS was not toxic at all tested concentrations in association with higher cytostatic effects in general and of fruits in particular on the HaCaT and THP-1 monoculture system than the co-culture. While, its leave extract effects were on HaCaT monoculture more than on co-culture. In addition, the pronounced inhibition of LPS-induced NO production on THP-1 monoculture. Hence all in all FS fruits and leaves extracts positive recorded data would serve as a source of a novel, effective antiproliferative and NO production inhibitory bioactivity potential agents against hyperproliferative of skin. From this point of view, this study supports to a certain degree the traditional medicinal uses of the plants in diseases therapy and reinforces the concept that ethno botanical approach to screen plants as potential sources of bioactive substances is successful.