Experimental and Simulation of Biomass Conversion by Gasification and Biodigestion: Potential of Bioenergy in Palestine

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امريش, أشرف حجازي ديب
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An-Najah National University
West Bank & Gaza Strip (WB&GS) are known to be very poor territories in terms of fossil fuel resources. At the same time, energy alternatives are not defined well specially the non-conventional types such as biomass. Biomass can be defined as a material which is recently derived from the sources of animals and plants that use sunlight to grow. This study aims at analyzing all main types and amount of biomass in WB&GS that can be used as an alternative fuel for conventional fossil fuel. In this research, Types and amount of biomass that exist in WB&GS were defined by a comprehensive field survey. A detailed study of biomass processing and conversion of biomass to biofuel were done referring to the earlier studies and literature. The potential energy from these wastes were calculated based on the proper conversion method that should be used according to the type of biomass. For instance, assuming that the proper conversion method is anaerobic digestion, the mount of potential electrical energy from some agricultural, industrial, animal and poultry residues was estimated to be 192.573GWhe, the potential of electrical energy from agricultural residues and Municipal Household solid waste (MHSW) is 816.716GWhe if a gasification process is used. The gasification process was studied in details as an important conversion method. For this purpose a homemade gasifier was designed and constructed. The gasifier was operated using Jeft as feedstock, the effect of inlet air flowrate and feedstock on the effluent producer gas were studied. the main parameter that affect the gasification process such as: gasification temperature, air or oxygen Equivalent Ratio, steam ratio, CO2 to Biomass ratio, hydrogen inject and effect of recycling of the producer gas on the gasification of jeft were investigated using a a proper simulation software. The optimum temperature of a gasifier was found to be 900oC. A 20 percent air or oxygen equivalent ratio (air or oxygen injection) gives maximum cold gas efficiency. The optimum steam to biomass ratio was found to be 2.5, whereas the optimum steam temperature was found to be150oC. Steam and air or oxygen equivalent ratios were found to have an effect on the concentration of hydrogen. A higher concentration of hydrogen can be obtained at steam to biomass ratio of 1.4. When Hydrogen was injected in the gasifier device, the concentration of Hydrogen in producer gas was found to be more than 96%. The generation of traces gas (NOx & Sox) during the gasification process is low. It was concluded that the percentage of volatile matter and fixed carbon of feedstock are the most important factors that affect the quality of producer gas.