Housing Characteristics in the West Bank According to the Data of the Housing Conditions Survey of 2015

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Hanan Ghazi Yusef Tayeh
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This study has addressed one of the most important human subjects: housing characteristics and housing conditions in the West Bank. It is a subject that is considered a basic condition for different human freedoms. It is as well one of the most important basic rights of man. This subject is examined in this study against the economic, social, political and cultural life prevailing in the population of the study. It is well known that housing characteristics have their own consequences which appear clearly on all family members and the society as a whole. This study sought to examine housing characteristics in the West Bank in terms of type of housing, pattern of ownership, size, number of living rooms, building materials used for construction of external walls, cost of monthly rent of leased home (in Jordanian dinar). In addition, the study endeavored to find out the degree of crowdedness: number of individuals per room, extent of availability of basic facilities and modern conveniences for each family at home. The study also dwelt on the most outstanding obstacles which deprive family members of having decent housing in the West Bank. The study concludes with a comparison of housing characteristics in the West Bank governorates and their population centers. The study ends with a number of suggestions and recommendations for support, development and improvement of the housing sector and living conditions in the West Bank. This study depended on the descriptive method: description of the housing conditions and characteristics in the West Bank. In addition, the researcher depended on the analytical method in the examination of the social and economic factors affecting housing characteristics. To this end, the researcher made use of the housing conditions survey data of 2015 collected by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). The researcher used SPSS to make analysis of these data. The study was limited only to data pertinent to the housing characteristics in the West Bank. The study has eleven chapters. Chapter one was devoted to the research plan and it included an introduction, problem of the study, its objectives, hypotheses, limitation and primary sources as well as review of related literature. In this chapter, the researcher also dwelt on the characteristics of the social and economic structure of the West Bank population, the educational and economic levels of the family heads according to the 2015 housing conditions survey. It was found that the average household size in the West Bank in 2015 was 5.4 persons. The Palestinian population is classified as one of the youngest in the world, thanks to high percentage of those 15year olds and under. The percentage of youth in 2015 represented around 37.2% of the total population of all age groups. The educational level of most household heads was preparatory, representing around 29.4% of all household heads. Most of household heads were working within the private sector and outside. Chapter two was devoted to the theoretical framework of the study. In this chapter, the researcher examined the criteria for the right to have an appropriate housing and the functions it should enjoy. This is in addition to the housing needs and the ascending order of these needs according to Maslow's theory based on Hierarchy of Human Needs. These needs are ordered according to their degree of importance and include physiological and biological needs, safety need, social need, esteem and self actualization. The researcher also touched on the criteria for Palestinian housing and the economic importance of housing projects. The researcher concluded the chapter by highlighting the most outstanding concepts and terms used in the study based on the Glossary of Statistical Terms used in the PCBS in 2015. In Chapter three, the researcher studied the types of housing in the West Bank. It was found that the house was the most common and prevalent in the West Bank. It represented around 54.0% of all types of housing in 2015. The researcher, in chapter four, examined the patterns and forms of family ownership of homes. It was found that 81.9% of all homes in the West Bank were privately owned as opposed to 20.1% leased to people. Chapter five dwelt on the cost of monthly rent of leased homes. It was found that the cost of monthly rent in the West Bank was 179.94 Jordanian dinars. Chapter six was devoted to materials used in building external walls of houses. Concrete brick ranked first in percentage of use in external walls of houses. About 41.6% of houses' external walls had concrete brick. Chapter seven dealt with the size of household. It was found that the average of household size area in West Bank was around 124.63 square meters. Chapter eight surveyed the number of living rooms in West Bank households. It was found that the average number of rooms in households was 3.45 rooms as opposed to an average of 2.12 bedrooms per house. Chapter nine investigated the degree of crowdedness per household. It was found that crowdedness in West Bank households was around 1.70 persons per room. Chapter ten dwelt on basic facilities and modern conveniences available for families in households. According to the 2015 housing conditions survey, degree of availability of these facilities was around 0.53. However, there was a rise in average of households having modern conveniences and services in comparison with those available in the 2007 Census of Population, Housing and Establishments. These included, inter alia, use of automatic washing machines, 3DTVs, fridges and gas cookers. Chapter eleven highlighted the most important and outstanding obstacles facing the Palestinian family to have decent housing according to 2015 Housing Conditions Survey Data. The obstacles were arranged in a hierarchy, from the one with strongest influence to the least strong influence on the family. These obstacles were lack of ready for sale housing units, high cost of building licenses and fees, social impediments, high cost of building materials and rise of land prices. Chapter twelve was devoted to the study conclusions, suggestions and recommendations to concerned parties. These include supporting and developing existing housing units, building new housing projects for different limited-income families in the West Bank. Another recommendation is the necessity to provide basic services and facilities to West Bank households. A third recommendation is to include the housing strategies within the long-term strategies and make them comprehensive. This is in addition to providing basic public services and utilities to households and enacting new laws to decrease cost of building licenses and land prices in the West Bank.
تناولت الدراسة موضوعا من أهم المواضيع البشرية، وهو يعد شرطا أساسيا للحريات الإنسانية المختلفة، باعتباره أحد أهم الحقوق الأساسية للإنسان، ألا وهو خصائص وظروف المسكن في الضفة الغربية، وذلك في إطار الحياة الاقتصادية والاجتماعية والسياسية والثقافية السائدة في مجتمع الدراسة. اعتمدت الدراسة على استخدام المنهج الوصفي الذي تمثل في وصف خصائص وأوضاع المسكن في الضفة الغربية، بالإضافة إلى الاعتماد على المنهج التحليلي في دراسة العوامل الاجتماعية والاقتصادية المؤثرة في خصائص المسكن، واقتصرت الدراسة على البيانات المتعلقة بخصائص المسكن في الضفة الغربية فقط. تكونت الدراسة من اثني عشر فصلا، احتوى الفصل الأول على خطة البحث، إضافة إلى التطرق في الحديث عن خصائص التركيب الاجتماعي والاقتصادي لسكان الضفة الغربية، وتلك المستويات التعليمية والاقتصادية لأرباب الأسر حسب بيانات مسح ظروف السكن 2015, ليتبين لنا أن حجم الأسرة في الضفة الغربية قد بلغ نحو 5.4 أفراد. وتناول الفصل الثاني الإطار النظري للدراسة وقد بحث في معايير الحق في السكن الملائم ووظائفه التي ينبغي أن يتحلى بها أي مسكن، ومن ثم الإشارة إلى معايير الإسكان الفلسطيني والأهمية الاقتصادية لمشاريع الإسكان. وفي الفصل الثالث تم دراسة نوع المسكن في الضفة الغربية، وتبين أن الدار من أكثر أنواع المساكن انتشارا وشيوعا في الضفة الغربية بنسبة بلغت حوالي 54.0%. أما في الفصل الرابع فقد تم دراسة نمط وشكل حيازة الأسرة للمسكن، وكانت المساكن الملك هي الغالبة في الضفة الغربية وبنسبة بلغت حوالي 81.9% من بين جميع المساكن في الضفة الغربية. وبحث الفصل الخامس قيمة الإيجار الشهري للمسكن المستأجر، لتبلغ قيمة الإيجار الشهري لمساكن الضفة الغربية نحو 179.94 دينارا أردنيا. أما عن نوع مادة بناء الجدران الخارجية للمسكن فقد تم بحثها في الفصل السادس من الدراسة، وكانت مادة الطوب الإسمنتي تحتل المرتبة الأولى في نسبة استخدامها لبناء الجدران الخارجية للمساكن بنسبة بلغت نحو 41.6%. وقد بحث الفصل السابع من الدراسة موضوع مساحة المسكن ليتبين أن متوسط مساحة المسكن في الضفة الغربية قد بلغ نحو 124.63 م². وبحث الفصل الثامن عدد غرف مساكن الضفة الغربية، ليظهر لنا أن متوسط عدد غرف المسكن في الضفة الغربية قد بلغ نحو 3.45 غرفة، أما عن متوسط عدد غرف النوم في المسكن فقد بلغ 2.12 غرفة. ويأتي الفصل التاسع ليبحث في درجة تزاحم المسكن، حيث بلغت في مساكن الضفة الغربية حوالي 1.70 فردا/ غرفة. أما الفصل العاشر فقد تناول الوسائل والمرافق الأساسية المتوفرة لدى الأسرة في المسكن، فقد بلغت درجة توفرها في مساكن الضفة الغربية حسب بيانات مسح ظروف السكن 2015 نحو 0.53. وجاء الفصل الحادي عشر للبحث في أهم وأبرز العقبات التي تواجه الأسرة الفلسطينية في الحصول على مسكن حسب بيانات مسح ظروف السكن 2015، وجاءت مرتبة من الأقوى تأثيرا إلى الأقل تأثيرا على الأسرة، وهي كالآتي: عدم توفر وحدات سكنية جاهزة للبيع، وارتفاع تكاليف الترخيص ورسوم البناء، وعقبات اجتماعية، وارتفاع تكاليف مواد البناء، وارتفاع أسعار الأراضي. أما الفصل الثاني عشر فقد جاء بمجموعة من الاستنتاجات التي توصلت إليها الدراسة، وانتهت الدراسة بمجموعة من التوصيات للجهات المعنية تهدف إلى دعم وتطوير ما هو قائم من وحدات سكنية، وإقامة مشاريع إسكانية تناسب فئات الدخل المختلفة في الضفة الغربية، ومن بين التوصيات التي خرجت فيها الدراسة: الاهتمام بضرورة التركيز على توفير الخدمات الضرورية والمرافق الأساسية في مساكن الضفة الغربية.