Ibn-Alanbar's "Book Asrar Al-Arabia" And Its Linguistic And Grammatical Resources

Thumbnail Image
Hana Saba'neh
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Host of researchers and authors in the past showed much concern in grammar books and discussed them with illustrations and deep investigations and with considerable degree of difference as this is due to the grammarian's role and status in setting up and inferring grammar rules. However, research in those grammar references is insufficient and rare despite the urgent need for studying such books and knowing the attitudes and opinions of famous grammarians towards them. Therefore, this is a kind of theoretical grammar research in which concern is dedicated to examining the origins and roots which Ibn-Alanbari restored to in writing his book 'The Secret of Arabic -Asrar AI Arabia' and investigating the Kofian and Al -Basri references from which he had obtained his grammar evidences and information. The researcher in this study is also interested in testing the points which Ibn -Alanbari depended on in correcting what he considered wrong and discussing the relationship between the books 'Asrar AL-Arabia and Al Insaf'. This- in the wholeshows Ai-Anbari's personality in his book 'Asrar Al- Arabia in terms of order, classification, justification and outweighing or preponderance. Choosing the topic of the study came as a result of the following reasons :- 1. The books of AL-Anbari, especially 'Asrar AI-Anbari' can be considered as a valuable grammar resource which contains various points of view and reflects the opinions and thoughts of most grammar schools at that time. This book also shows the effects of jurisprudence, philology and logic on Arabic grammar. 2. Ibn-Alanbari's interest in issues of contradiction and dispute in Aibasri and Al-Kofian grammar, his support to AI-Basri's grammar and his accusation to Al-Kofians' opinions they had had, are all enough and convenient reasons for discussing and tracing grammar issues. 3. The fulfillment to Dr. Ahmad Hamed's strong desire and great enthusiasm for the topic which can be considered as a breakthrough to grammar at its source, searching for grammar in its origins and roots and knowing the attitudes of famous grammarians towards a mere Issue. As for the study references and resources, the researcher referred to different recent and old grammar books, dissertations and studies which particularly Al-Anbaris biography or issues of contradiction in grammar. This study was divided into an introduction background of the study and five chapters the introduction included the purposes of the study and the statement of the problem' justifications' as well as the study design and procedure. The background section showed Ibn AIAnbari's biography and the position of his book 'Asrar Al-Arabia' as compaired with his own books and the books of the other authors. As for the five sections, the first chapter contained information about Al Basri's grammatical points which were supported with the grammatical issues .and evidences that were produced by the authors. The second chapter discussed the Kofians grammatical points and provided implications of these points on the issues which the author took into account. The third chapter was dedicated to the disputable ideas which Ibn-Alanbari was unique in discussing them. The researcher discussed in the third section the bases and principles of justification which Ibn-Alanbari depended on as the book 'Asrar Alarabia' based on the theory of justi fication which adapted the strategy of Questions and Answers' an easy strategy for learners and learning. The fifth chapter included the various evidences and proofs which Ibn-Alanbari made use of and showed his opinion towards those evidences which was consisted with opinions of former grammarians. The conclusion displayed the study results that might be useful for further studies which may benefit from the efforts of Ibn-Alanbari . This study shows the following results:- 1- Ibn-Alanbari was greatly affected by philosophy and philology. This is clear in his display to the issues of linguistics and grammar and in his comments and logical measurements. He also joined together the theoretical and the practical parts. 2- Ibn-Alanbari was also affected by jurisprudence which is obvious in his books and namely in' Asrar Alarabia and Alinsaf'. He also classified issues of disputation in the same way as issues of jurisprudence are classified. He also used idioms of jurisprudence in grammar and language. 3- Particular Educational Objectives: This is obvious in his way of showing and discussing grammatical issues. His technique based on 'questions and answers'; a teaching method which was imposed by Ibn-Alanbari's profession. 4- According to references, Ibn-Alanbari used them in an inconsistent way as he mentioned some of them and neglected many others that they should have been mentioned. He should have also got issues from their origins and not from his educators. 4- Despite his attempt of innovation and creativity Ibn-Alanbari kept within the scope of former grammarians' opinions and ideas. His new ideas were few and dealt with the branches of grammar and not with its origin. But, despite this fact, Ibn-Alanbari was able to literaturize grammar and released it from the tough way of display which was common in the old grammar books. He showed and displayed grammar issues with easiness and simplicity. Finally, despite this modest study which discussed Ibn- Alanbari's efforts and contributions in grammar which were shown in his book 'Asrar Alarabia', the researcher indicated that we are still indeed in need of more knowledge and recommended further studies which adapt the scientific approach in dealing with our legacy and its origins and resources.
لقد حظيت كتب النحو القديمة باهتمام الدارسين بشكل كبير إذ تناولوها بالشرح والتعليق والتحقيق ولكن بدرجات متفاوتة تقررها قيمة النحوي ودوره في تعقيد القواعد واستنباط الأحكام. أما البحث في مصادر تلك المصنفات اللغوية والنحوية فأمر قليل, رغم الحاجة الماسة الى الوقوف على تلك المصادر وموقف مشاهير النحاة منها. لذا فهذا ضرب من درس نحوي نظري نعني فيه بفحص الأصول والمستندات التي احتكم إليها ابن الأنباري في تأليفه "أسرار العربية", وبالمصادر والأصول البصرية والكوفية التي استقى منها مادته النحوية, وفحص الدلائل التي اعتمدها في تصحيح ما رآه فاسداً من الآراء إضافة إلى علاقة كتاب "أسرار العربية" بكتاب "الإنصاف" وذلك برمته يبرز شخصية ابن الأنباري في "أسرار العربية" من حيث الترتيب أو التبويب أو حسن التعليل, وجودة الترجيح عند الاختلاف. أما أسباب اختيار موضوع الدراسة فهي:- 1- إن مؤلفات ابن الأنباري وخصوصاً "أسرار العربية" يعد مصدراً تلتقي فيه مختلف الآراء والأفكار اللغوية والنحوية التي تمثل مختلف الاتجاهات والمدارس النحوية التي شاعت في عصره, إلى جانب أن الكتاب يعكس المؤثرات الفكرية التي انتقلت إلى النحو العربي كالفقه والمنطق وعلم الكلام. 2- عناية ابن الانباري بقضايا الخلاف النحوي البصري والكوفي وتأييده للبصريين غالباً واتهامه الكوفيين بفساد الرأي أمر يدعو للبحث وتعقب القضايا النحوية. 3- تلبية لرغبة الأستاذ الدكتور "أحمد حامد" الذي ساعدني في اختيار موضوع الدراسة ومصادرها لأن في مثل هذه الدراسة نفاذاً إلى النحو من منابعه وتعقبه في جذوره ومنابعها الأولى, والوقوف على آراء مشاهير النحاة في القضية الواحدة. أما مصادر الدراسة فتنوعت ما بين كتب تحدثت عن عصر ابن الأنباري, وبين كتب التراجم والطبقات التي ساعدت في الوقوف على جوانب شخصيته وأثرها في علومه, ثم كتب النحو قديمها وحديثها وذلك من أجل ملاحقة القضايا النحوية إلى جانب الدراسات اللغوية والنحوية الحديثة والرسائل الجامعة التي تناولت ابن الأنباري أو قضايا الخلاف النحوي. وفيما يتعلق بهيكلية الدراسة فقسمت إلى: مقدمة, وتمهيد, وخمسة فصول تناولت في المقدمة هدف الدراسة ومبرراتها ومنهجية البحث, في حين تناول التمهيد حياة ابن الأنباري ومنزلة كتاب العربية بين مؤلفاته من جهة ومن مؤلفات عصره من جهة أخرى. أما فصول الرسالة فبحث الفصل الأول في الأفكار النحوية البصرية مع دعم تلك الأفكار بالقضايا والظواهر اللغوية التي تناولها المؤلف, وفي الفصل الثاني تناولت الأفكار النحوية بالقضايا والظواهر اللغوية التي تناولها المؤلف, وفي الفصل الثاني تناولت الأفكار النحوية البصرية مع دعم تلك الأفكار بالقضايا والظواهر اللغوية التي تناولها المؤلف, وفي الفصل الثاني تناولت الأفكار النحوية الكوفية مع تطبيق تلك الأفكار على القضايا والظواهر التي تناولها المؤلف. أما الفصل الثالث فخصص للأفكار والآراء الاجتهادية التي انفرد بها ابن الأنباري عن غيره من أئمة النحو السابقين. وفي الفصل الرابع بحثت أسس التعليل التي اعتمدها ابن الأنباري إذ قام كتاب أسرار العربية برمته على نظرية التعليل التي قامت على السؤال والجواب بما في ذلك من سهولة ويسر للطلبة والمتعلمين. أما الفصل الخامس فتناول الشواهد التي اعتمدها ابن الأنباري بأنواعها, وموقف ابن الأنباري من تلك الشواهد الذي لم يخرج فيه عن موقف أئمة النحو السابقين.