Static Structural Design of Science Centers Building
Ahmad Hashem Droubi
Mohammad Abed Allah Ahmad
Abed Al-Raheem Fatthi Driadi
This project includes the static structural design of educational building located at An-Najah National university new campus and consists of six floors, each floor has an area about 900 and the first two floors are considered to be storage floors. The project will include complete design for all parts of the building. The design will start from slabs and continue to footings and every calculation and formula will be taken according to the ACI code. Philosophy of analysis and design: The building is designed as a reinforced concrete structure and it will be treated and achieved using three model structure (three model frame) and this will be obtained using the analysis and design software SAP2000 version 14.2.4. In addition, some hand calculations will be made to assure accuracy and explain the method that will be used for each part. For example, the direct design method is used to analyze and design two way solid slabs. These slabs will be carried over drop beams as the architectural design required, columns used have recantagular cross sections carrying an axial load coming from reaction from beams above, and finally footings are required in the design to support the columns. Also, a basement wall will be designed. Codes: The most commonly used code in the modern world, also used mainly in Palestine is the ACI code (American Concrete Institute provisions for reinforced concrete structure design). The ACI code has many versions and the version that will be used in this project is ACI 318-08. Slab systems: The slab was divided into panels by the main beams, and loads were distributed in both directions of each panel. Loads on each rib were calculated depending on panels over which the rib is extended. ** One way slabs: In this system of slabs, the load will be distributed along one of the two directions, and then the main slab reinforcement will be in that direction. Using of this system is effective when the slab to be designed is supported at two edges only, or at the four edges with a ratio of slab length L to width B is greater than 2. ** Two way slabs: In this system of slabs, the load will be distributed in both directions, then the main slab reinforcement will be in two directions. Beams system Beams in this part of the project will be designed using Sap. Dropped in the first two floors & hidden in the other floors, multi span and large space beams are used on all floors. Columns system Columns are structural members designed to carry compressive loads, composed of concrete with an embedded steel frame to provide reinforcement. For design purposes, the columns are separated into two categories: short columns and slender columns, the columns carry the load from the beams and slabs to the foundation to the earth, reinforcing rebar is placed axially in the column to provide additional axial stiffness. Shear Walls system Shear walls comprise the vertical elements in the lateral force resisting system (LFRS) for many structures.They support the horizontal diaphragms and transfer the resultant forces from the applied lateral loads into the foundation. A shear wall is essentially a deep, thin cantilevered beam projecting from the foundation that is subjected to one or more lateral forces, such as those due to wind or seismic activity. As the name implies, the basic form of resistance is that of a shear-element. Basement Walls system Basement walls are kind of retaining walls, the basic function of these walls is to provide lateral support for a mass of earth or other material that is a higher elevation behind the wall. The basement wall may act as a cantilever retaining wall. The first and the second floors provide an additional horizontal reaction Stairs system Stairs are a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. Stairs may be straight, round, or may consist of two or more straight pieces connected at angles. Footing system footings are usually embedded about a metre or so into soil. One common type of footings is the isolated footing or single footing which transfer the weight from walls and columns to the soil or bedrock.