## التخطيط الزراعي في إقليم نابلس كأساس للتخطيط الإقليمي

The main purpose of this study is to discover the capability of regional planning (The planning that depends on the participation of all concerned parties and local communities and that requires different surveys in soil characteristics, environment, socio-economic and beneficiaries needs and their priorities) as a planning tool for achieving integrated development with clear results than what the traditional planning methods achieves which focuses only on economical aspects and ignore social and geographical dimensions. Through this fact with all interrogations, this study came into being an inquiry of the efficiency of regional planning as one of the planning methods used in improving the development process. Whatever was the nature of the regions that will be adopted in the Palestinian Territories, the agricultural activity will remain the main productive sector in most of the regions and the development process will constitute the basis for sustainable rural development and comprehensive regional development. The planning for agricultural development process requires various studies and surveys which in turn, constitutes the basis for the regional planer used in determining the needs, opportunities, possibilities and priorities within the region and between the activities and the various sectors within this region. This will promote the relationship between the agricultural sector and other development sectors. THE RESEARCHER INVESTIGATES AND ANALYZES THE THESIS SUBJECT IN FIVE CHAPTERS: CHAPTER 1 The first chapter brings to the light the introduction of the thesis mainly the importance and different tools of planning and the methodology framework adopted for dealing with this study at regional or at village level. Data resources are gathered from two sides. The first are gathered from formal resources from ministries and related institutions and the second from questionnaires prepared by the researcher. The end of this chapter covers the previous studies and researches that deal with the same study. CHAPTER 2 In this chapter the researcher discusses the theoretical framework through regional planning in view of concepts and contents, the relationship between geography and the location theory (the location that achieves the optimum income with the minimum cost) then reviewing justifications, objectives, methodology, assumptions in addition to agriculture planning and its objectives. CHAPTER 3 Includes the natural, social and economic background for Nablus district from location, climate, administrative and economical structure and the mutual relationship between Nablus district and rural communities within the region mainly concerning the educational levels and health activities. CHAPTER 4 The researcher in this chapter shows the historical view of regional planning in the Palestinian Authority. Also, he addresses the historical development of regional planning in the area and in Nablus district Moreover, he discusses the activities of sect oral planning in the region; such as water, roads, electricity, higher education, tourism, antiquities, communication, youth, social and cultural sectors. Finally, he clarifies the criteria used for selection sub region in Nablus district considering the location, agriculture systems and a principle indicator that characterizes these sect oral regions. CHAPTER 5 Discusses agricultural planning and its relationship with regional planning in addition to the importance of the agricultural sector in the Palestinian Authority and the importance of agricultural planning and its development in the area and mainly in Nablus district. Finally, the researcher emphasizes on the procedure that should be used in preparing the plan, such as designing the questionnaire that includes all projects included in the plan and which are adaptable to the environment of Nablus district and are highly prioritized according to the formally adapted norms by the specialized working groups who reexamined and reclassified them according to a set of standards: 1. The effect of the project on natural resources. 2. The total numbers of people benefiting from the project. 3. Total expected cost for the project. 4. The project implementing period. 5. The ability to adopt the results. 6. The extent the results are suitable to the implementation. 7. When to start the project. The researcher was eager to fill out these questionnaires by means of personal interviews in order to explain the meaning of each question and get specific answers. Then the researcher analyzed the questionnaires statistically after prioritizing the suggested projects (by using the Mean (x)). The statistically analysis showed that there was significant difference of projects arrangement. Then the researcher deeply discusses the results: Do these results reflect the needs of the local community or not? And were these projects evaluated according to the economical dimension or do they take into consideration the location and human aspects? Furthermore, these results and priorities projects were explained. A statistical analysis was made for these results to know if the results of classifying the projects were abstractly differentiated. This analysis shows that there is a clear abstract difference. The researcher then concluded a group of suggestions and a mechanism for distributing the suggested projects on sub-districts and defining them on the basis of location and justification that led to this choice. The group of suggestions and the mechanism of classifying the projects are as follows: 1. The quantity of production. 2. The ability to market the products. 3. The existence of a transportation network which facilitates the agricultural process in addition to machinery usage. 4. Enough water capacity. The prioritized projects have been proposed according to the results reached on regional level. Then, a number of general recommendations were set adding to them the recommendations of the Ministry of Agriculture. At the end of the study, a budget for the five years plan was set for Nablus district. In addition, a log frame for the projects of the plan was set according to the main objective of each project in addition to the outputs and activities of these projects. According to the data obtained in this study, nine projects were chosen to form the five years plan for Nablus district: 1. Introduction and dissemination of high yield varieties of wheat, barley, lentil, and chickpea... 2. Improvement of olive productivity. 3. Land reclamation. 4. Crop/livestock commodity and market analyses. 5. Dissemination of small ruminant dairy production and processing practices. 6. Extension and applied research on bee production. 7. Selection and improvement for :small ruminant breeds and management practices (Awasi, Shami). 8. Testing and dissemination of high value fruit trees. 9. Enhancement of post-harvest processing and quality of (1) olive oil and (2) other by-products. Furthermore, the expertise of the agricultural researcher confirms that this test was factual due to the project importance and priority according to the environmental and climatic conditions. But it is worth noting that there was a difference in classifying the priorities between educated farmers (engineers, agricultural engineers...etc.) and traditional farmers in the sub districts in two specific projects: • Sewage and saline water usage in agriculture • Agricultural database bank Where some results gave these projects a high consideration by educated farmers in contrary to the traditional farmers whom results were negative which influenced the classification of these projects in the list of projects included in the five years plan. This forced the researcher to revert to the recommendations of the Ministry of Agriculture in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural extension system so as to increase the awareness of the farmers in general because of the importance of adding new water resources for the agricultural sector by reusing sewage and saline water in agriculture and getting rid of health problems caused by such water and its bad influence on environment. And it is so important to consider and concentrate on the agricultural database bank especially for its high importance in planning, for without the existence of an accurate and consistence agricultural data, good planning would never exist. But in general, the results were drawn nearer to the facts and to the needs of the local society in the district. At the end of this thesis the researcher estimated the needed budget for the 5 years plan for Nablus District and an abstract for the above projects was done including the objectives, outputs and activities. The estimated budget was US$8,037,000. The researcher benefited from previous studies, abstracted and used them in his thesis: . The French Monitoring Project. . The Agricultural Research and Extension Medium Term Plan in Palestine. . The Tripartite Agricultural Development Plan of the Ministry of Agriculture. . Sect oral Planning Activities in Nablus district . Agricultural data and methods dominant in the sectors of Nablus district The main purpose of this study is to discover the capability of regional planning (The planning that depends on the participation of all concerned parties and local communities and that requires different surveys in soil characteristics, environment, socio-economic and beneficiaries needs and their priorities) as a planning tool for achieving integrated development with clear results than what the traditional planning methods achieves which focuses only on economical aspects and ignore social and geographical dimensions. Through this fact with all interrogations, this study came into being an inquiry of the efficiency of regional planning as one of the planning methods used in improving the development process. Whatever was the nature of the regions that will be adopted in the Palestinian Territories, the agricultural activity will remain the main productive sector in most of the regions and the development process will constitute the basis for sustainable rural development and comprehensive regional development. The planning for agricultural development process requires various studies and surveys which in turn, constitutes the basis for the regional planer used in determining the needs, opportunities, possibilities and priorities within the region and between the activities and the various sectors within this region. This will promote the relationship between the agricultural sector and other development sectors. THE RESEARCHER INVESTIGATES AND ANALYZES THE THESIS SUBJECT IN FIVE CHAPTERS: CHAPTER 1 The first chapter brings to the light the introduction of the thesis mainly the importance and different tools of planning and the methodology framework adopted for dealing with this study at regional or at village level. Data resources are gathered from two sides. The first are gathered from formal resources from ministries and related institutions and the second from questionnaires prepared by the researcher. The end of this chapter covers the previous studies and researches that deal with the same study. CHAPTER 2 In this chapter the researcher discusses the theoretical framework through regional planning in view of concepts and contents, the relationship between geography and the location theory (the location that achieves the optimum income with the minimum cost) then reviewing justifications, objectives, methodology, assumptions in addition to agriculture planning and its objectives. CHAPTER 3 Includes the natural, social and economic background for Nablus district from location, climate, administrative and economical structure and the mutual relationship between Nablus district and rural communities within the region mainly concerning the educational levels and health activities. CHAPTER 4 The researcher in this chapter shows the historical view of regional planning in the Palestinian Authority. Also, he addresses the historical development of regional planning in the area and in Nablus district Moreover, he discusses the activities of sect oral planning in the region; such as water, roads, electricity, higher education, tourism, antiquities, communication, youth, social and cultural sectors. Finally, he clarifies the criteria used for selection sub region in Nablus district considering the location, agriculture systems and a principle indicator that characterizes these sect oral regions. CHAPTER 5 Discusses agricultural planning and its relationship with regional planning in addition to the importance of the agricultural sector in the Palestinian Authority and the importance of agricultural planning and its development in the area and mainly in Nablus district. Finally, the researcher emphasizes on the procedure that should be used in preparing the plan, such as designing the questionnaire that includes all projects included in the plan and which are adaptable to the environment of Nablus district and are highly prioritized according to the formally adapted norms by the specialized working groups who reexamined and reclassified them according to a set of standards: 1. The effect of the project on natural resources. 2. The total numbers of people benefiting from the project. 3. Total expected cost for the project. 4. The project implementing period. 5. The ability to adopt the results. 6. The extent the results are suitable to the implementation. 7. When to start the project. The researcher was eager to fill out these questionnaires by means of personal interviews in order to explain the meaning of each question and get specific answers. Then the researcher analyzed the questionnaires statistically after prioritizing the suggested projects (by using the Mean (x)). The statistically analysis showed that there was significant difference of projects arrangement. Then the researcher deeply discusses the results: Do these results reflect the needs of the local community or not? And were these projects evaluated according to the economical dimension or do they take into consideration the location and human aspects? Furthermore, these results and priorities projects were explained. A statistical analysis was made for these results to know if the results of classifying the projects were abstractly differentiated. This analysis shows that there is a clear abstract difference. The researcher then concluded a group of suggestions and a mechanism for distributing the suggested projects on sub-districts and defining them on the basis of location and justification that led to this choice. The group of suggestions and the mechanism of classifying the projects are as follows: 1. The quantity of production. 2. The ability to market the products. 3. The existence of a transportation network which facilitates the agricultural process in addition to machinery usage. 4. Enough water capacity. The prioritized projects have been proposed according to the results reached on regional level. Then, a number of general recommendations were set adding to them the recommendations of the Ministry of Agriculture. At the end of the study, a budget for the five years plan was set for Nablus district. In addition, a log frame for the projects of the plan was set according to the main objective of each project in addition to the outputs and activities of these projects. According to the data obtained in this study, nine projects were chosen to form the five years plan for Nablus district: 1. Introduction and dissemination of high yield varieties of wheat, barley, lentil, and chickpea... 2. Improvement of olive productivity. 3. Land reclamation. 4. Crop/livestock commodity and market analyses. 5. Dissemination of small ruminant dairy production and processing practices. 6. Extension and applied research on bee production. 7. Selection and improvement for :small ruminant breeds and management practices (Awasi, Shami). 8. Testing and dissemination of high value fruit trees. 9. Enhancement of post-harvest processing and quality of (1) olive oil and (2) other by-products. Furthermore, the expertise of the agricultural researcher confirms that this test was factual due to the project importance and priority according to the environmental and climatic conditions. But it is worth noting that there was a difference in classifying the priorities between educated farmers (engineers, agricultural engineers...etc.) and traditional farmers in the sub districts in two specific projects: • Sewage and saline water usage in agriculture • Agricultural database bank Where some results gave these projects a high consideration by educated farmers in contrary to the traditional farmers whom results were negative which influenced the classification of these projects in the list of projects included in the five years plan. This forced the researcher to revert to the recommendations of the Ministry of Agriculture in order to increase the efficiency of agricultural extension system so as to increase the awareness of the farmers in general because of the importance of adding new water resources for the agricultural sector by reusing sewage and saline water in agriculture and getting rid of health problems caused by such water and its bad influence on environment. And it is so important to consider and concentrate on the agricultural database bank especially for its high importance in planning, for without the existence of an accurate and consistence agricultural data, good planning would never exist. But in general, the results were drawn nearer to the facts and to the needs of the local society in the district. At the end of this thesis the researcher estimated the needed budget for the 5 years plan for Nablus District and an abstract for the above projects was done including the objectives, outputs and activities. The estimated budget was US$ 8,037,000. The researcher benefited from previous studies, abstracted and used them in his thesis: . The French Monitoring Project. . The Agricultural Research and Extension Medium Term Plan in Palestine. . The Tripartite Agricultural Development Plan of the Ministry of Agriculture. . Sect oral Planning Activities in Nablus district . Agricultural data and methods dominant in the sectors of Nablus district