## Environmental Impact assessment of Small industries in West Bank With Emphasis on Olive Presses

 dc.contributor.advisor Dr. Marwan Haddad dc.contributor.author Lina Ahmad Al-Sa'd dc.date.accessioned 2017-05-03T09:30:14Z dc.date.available 2017-05-03T09:30:14Z dc.date.issued 2001 dc.description.abstract The industrial sector in the West Bank consists mainly of small industries. The average annual contribution of the industrial sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the West Bank is about 170 million US $, and the relative share in GDP is about 18.92%. These industries are considered as one of the main contributors to environmental pollution. Both of the liquid and solid industrial waste generation cause great environmental problems in Palestine. The reasons behind their environmental problems are the lack of pretreatment processes at the industrial sites, there is no separation system for collecting or disposing of the industrial waste, and the in existence of proper treatment and disposal for municipal solid and liquid wastes. Olive is considered as one of the important agricultural-industrial crops in Palestine. In 1998 the annual production of olive fruit and olive oil were 63187 tons and 14791 tons respectively. In 1998 season, out of 239 olive presses in the West Bank 218 presses were operating generating about 0.2 million cubic meters of OMW. The main objective of this study was to conduct an environmental assessment of olive presses in the West Bank. As a parallel objective was to conduct two main surveys: (1) an overview of small industries and olive presses in Palestine, and (2) an overview and evaluation of olive mills waste water treatment technologies. To achieve this purpose, 46 questionnaires were tilled from 46 olive mills distributed in various villages and cities in the West Bank. lt was found that the olive mill solid waste was most often taken by villagers for heating. While, the olive mill waste water (OMW) was either disposed to nearby cesspits or land, or to the sewer networks without any prior treatment at source. The characteristics of OMW were experimentally analyzed and compared to Jordanian standards and regulations for the disposal of industrial waste water to the environment and to the sewer system. OMW was found highly polluted and severely exceeding the permissible limits. It was observed from field visits that ventilation, illumination and space are generally sufficient when the season is poor, but are poor in the productive seasons. However, the inevitable noise is a common environmental pollution in all of the olive presses surveyed. It was also observed from field visits that few of the workers wear special customs for work or safety glasses or gloves, still, most of the olive presses contain first aid kits and fire extinguishers and the workers are trained on using them. The poor working environment that was demonstrated above, may have physical and psychological impacts on the workers and on the customers, such as catching contagious diseases, nervousness, etc. OMW treatment methods were also discussed. These methods include direct land application of OMW, composting of OMW using various techniques and bulking agents, Azotobacter and nitrogen fixation in soils, anaerobic digestion, polyphenols and phenols reduction techniques, heavy metals removal, electrolysis treatment systems, biological treatment techniques, decolorization techniques. Other treatment techniques, such as the use of solar collectors and combined treatment with other agricultural wastes were also briefly discussed. en dc.description.abstract The industrial sector in the West Bank consists mainly of small industries. The average annual contribution of the industrial sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the West Bank is about 170 million US$, and the relative share in GDP is about 18.92%. These industries are considered as one of the main contributors to environmental pollution. Both of the liquid and solid industrial waste generation cause great environmental problems in Palestine. The reasons behind their environmental problems are the lack of pretreatment processes at the industrial sites, there is no separation system for collecting or disposing of the industrial waste, and the in existence of proper treatment and disposal for municipal solid and liquid wastes. Olive is considered as one of the important agricultural-industrial crops in Palestine. In 1998 the annual production of olive fruit and olive oil were 63187 tons and 14791 tons respectively. In 1998 season, out of 239 olive presses in the West Bank 218 presses were operating generating about 0.2 million cubic meters of OMW. The main objective of this study was to conduct an environmental assessment of olive presses in the West Bank. As a parallel objective was to conduct two main surveys: (1) an overview of small industries and olive presses in Palestine, and (2) an overview and evaluation of olive mills waste water treatment technologies. To achieve this purpose, 46 questionnaires were tilled from 46 olive mills distributed in various villages and cities in the West Bank. lt was found that the olive mill solid waste was most often taken by villagers for heating. While, the olive mill waste water (OMW) was either disposed to nearby cesspits or land, or to the sewer networks without any prior treatment at source. The characteristics of OMW were experimentally analyzed and compared to Jordanian standards and regulations for the disposal of industrial waste water to the environment and to the sewer system. OMW was found highly polluted and severely exceeding the permissible limits. It was observed from field visits that ventilation, illumination and space are generally sufficient when the season is poor, but are poor in the productive seasons. However, the inevitable noise is a common environmental pollution in all of the olive presses surveyed. It was also observed from field visits that few of the workers wear special customs for work or safety glasses or gloves, still, most of the olive presses contain first aid kits and fire extinguishers and the workers are trained on using them. The poor working environment that was demonstrated above, may have physical and psychological impacts on the workers and on the customers, such as catching contagious diseases, nervousness, etc. OMW treatment methods were also discussed. These methods include direct land application of OMW, composting of OMW using various techniques and bulking agents, Azotobacter and nitrogen fixation in soils, anaerobic digestion, polyphenols and phenols reduction techniques, heavy metals removal, electrolysis treatment systems, biological treatment techniques, decolorization techniques. Other treatment techniques, such as the use of solar collectors and combined treatment with other agricultural wastes were also briefly discussed. ar dc.identifier.uri https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11888/7682 dc.title Environmental Impact assessment of Small industries in West Bank With Emphasis on Olive Presses en dc.title Environmental Impact assessment of Small industries in West Bank With Emphasis on Olive Presses ar dc.type Thesis
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