Drying Rates of Calendula Herb and Antioxidant Test of Ascorbic Acid”
Abstract Calendula officinalis L. (Pot marigold) is one of the commonly used medicinal plants in India, China, Europe and US. This plant can be planted easily and successfully in Palestine in winter. The plant species has been reported to contain a variety of phytochemicals, including carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, steroids, tocopherols, terpenoids, quinones and carotenoids. The Calendula officinalis extracts possess a wide range of pharmacological effects and are used as antiseptic, stimulant, diaphoretic, anti-spasmodic and anti-pyretic agents. The flower extracts of the plant have anti-viral effects on HIV. In-vitro, Calendula officinalis plant extracts show anti-cancerous activity on various tumor cell lines derived from leukemia’s, melanomas, breast, cervix, prostate, pancreas and lung. It has also been internally used for the treatment of gastritis, colitis and bleeding of duodenal ulcers. The main objective is to examine the present of antioxidant agents in both of Calendula leaves and flowers, and then compare it with the antioxidant activity of Ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts are prepared from Calendula powders obtained from dried Calendula leaves and flowers. The chosen antioxidant test is 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). DPPH experiments have been started only for the Ascorbic acid, but not completed due to COVID-19 disease outbreak. The Graduation Project work is completed by carrying out theoretical analysis of experimental drying data conducted by Dr. Husni Odeh at room temperature and at 55-60 °C for Calendula flower. The drying rate equations and drying characteristic curves for Calendula herb flowers are derived and presented. The increasing drying condition from 20- 22 ºC to 55-60 ºC shows increasing the rate of drying about 150 times.