The Incidence and Risk Factors of Nosocomial Infections in Intensive Care Unit at Jenin Governmental Hospital
An-Najah National University
Introduction- Infections acquired when a patient is undergoing treatment at a healthcare facility are known as nosocomial infections. It's a global health problem with rising rates of incidence and high mortality rates associated with the infection and its complications. Objectives- To determine the incidence of nosocomial infection, identify possible risk factors for these infections, clarify the distribution of the causative pathogens and to evaluate the outcome of the infected patients in terms of length of ICU stay and mortality. Methodology-Prospective, observational study conducted from Agu 2020- Dec 2020 in ICU of Jenin Governmental Hospital. 80 patients staying for more than 48 hours in the ICU were included in the study. Epidemiologic characteristics of the patients, cultures, identification of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility tests were made based on standard microbiologic methods, invasive procedures and other risk factors, and outcome of the infected patients in terms of length of ICU stay and mortality were also noted. Result- The incidence of nosocomial infection in our study was 54.7% of 44(55%) Infected Patients who have developed NIs, and 36(45%) Non-Infected Patients. Regarding Infectious disease type diagnosed in our ICU were 42.2% of patients in the sample had the type Urinary Tract Infection especially (CAUTI), 38.6% had the type Respiratory Tract Infection especially (IAP), 20.5% had the type Blood Stream Infection that was 13.6% CLBSI and 6.8% had the type (Septicemia), 15.9% had the type Surgical Site Infection (SSI) and only one patient had other infection. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest pathogens isolated, especially Klebsiella pneumonia was43.2% the highest causative agent of the diagnosed infectious disease. Diabetes mellitus, Endotracheal tube use, Nasogastric tube, and Tracheostomy, were determined as independent risk factors for developing NI. Additionally APACHE II score and length of ICU stay (were found to be high in the NI group. Mortality percentage of patients who developed NI were 50% higher than that in Non-infected group were 25%. Conclusion- Infection control steps should be considered to reduce these numbers due to the high incidence of NIs and widespread resistance among isolates species in the sample. Antibiotics must be used wisely in order to reduce antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Hospitalized patients' morbidity was increased by nosocomial infections. In our sitting , these results can be used to prepare a nosocomial infection surveillance program.