The Relationship Between Professional Culture of Pharmacy and Different Pharmaceutical care Services Provided by Community Pharmacists: A Cross Sectional Study in West Bank /Palestine.
As the health care system has been grown, pharmacy profession also has been expanded and the integration of advanced pharmacy services such as pharmaceutical care services increased. However, many pharmacists have not been able to provide such services yet. The implementation research suggests that understanding the professional culture of pharmacy profession, which is a part of the whole pharmacy context is of key importance to achieve effective change in pharmacy practice. This study aimed at examining any relationship between the professional culture of pharmacy and the provision of pharmaceutical care services by community pharmacists, the secondary aim of this work was to gain insight into the professional culture of community pharmacists. This study was a cross-sectional online self-administrative questionnaire for community pharmacists in The West Bank. The questionnaire contained three parts. The first part was the demographic background section. The second section was the pharmaceutical care part. It contained a list of 20services which was derived from the Behavioral Pharmaceutical Care Scale (BPCS). The third one was the professional culture part. It contained the organizational culture profile (OCP) as a measure for the professional culture. Total 294 completed questionnaire were returned. The average of respondents age was (37.5 ± 9.5). The most provided dimension of pharmaceutical care was the instrumental activities (mean 4.28 ± 0.44) with "very often" level of provision and the least one was the referral and consultation (mean 3.46 ± 0.6) with "often" level of provision. Study participants perceived the greatest value in the factor of "reward orientation" (4.1803 ± 0.553), followed by factors of "performance orientation" (3.9252 ± 0.614), "supportiveness" (3.9039 ± 0.625), "competitiveness" (3.7730 ± 0.705), "stability" (3.6743 ± 0.725), "social responsibility" (3.6276 ± 0.676) and "innovation" (3.3316 ± 0.677) in descending order. Linear regression test revealed significant positive relationships between factors of "competitiveness" and "direct care activities" (p =.001), "supportiveness" and "referral activities" (p = .000), "competitiveness" (p = .013), "social responsibility" (p = .006) and "supportiveness" (p = .000) and the "provision of pharmaceutical care services". This cross-sectional research showed that community pharmacists in Palestine have improved the practice of pharmaceutical acre. This study represents a starting step in identifying the professional culture of community pharmacy and understanding how this culture may influence the challenge of conducting changes in pharmacy practice in Palestine.