IMPACT OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUND CARBAMAZEPINE IN WASTEWATER ON CUCUMBER QUALITY, QUANTITY AND GENES

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Date
2022-02-07
Authors
Qasem, Israa
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جامعة النجاح الوطنية
Abstract
The reuse of wastewater for irrigation in countries with water scarcity in agricultural sector was established but may introduce pollutants into environment as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Many of these pharmaceutical compounds were detected and reported. Researchers discovered that there is potential of plant’s uptake of these chemicals. Thus, this research aimed to study one of these pharmaceutical compound uptake and its effect on cucumber plants. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was one of the most pharmaceutical compound that found in treated wastewater and analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). It is usually used to decrease nerve impulses that cause seizures and nerve pain, and use to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain, bipolar affective disorder and acute mania. Carbamazepine was used as pollutants in this study on cucumber plant at different concentration (1μg/L -1 and 25μg/L -1), tap water, treated waste water which was grown under greenhouse conditions from October to November 2021. Through the season as well as at the end of experiment, samples were collected from shoots and roots and stored at -20 for later analysis. LC-MS analysis revealed the absorbance of cucumber to CBZ in all collected samples but in different concentrations. Leaves were showed the part with highest concentration over all plant organs. The real time PCR analysis were applied to measure the gene expression level of two genes: Actin and Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Actin because it is conserved and essential proteins that involved in cell motility and ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells throughout the plant body and GST genes because they catalyze the detoxification of the herbicide atrazine and many herbicides and other toxic xenobiotic compounds in plants, as well as they are expressed as a response to environmental stress (temperature extremities, such as heat and cold, flood, salinity, drought, and metal toxicity) . For that, RNA extraction of samples were achieved by using silica method. Then RNAs quantity were quantified by using a spectrophotometer and quality of RNAs was verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The rt-PCR analysis demonstrated that after plant exposure to CBZ, Actin and GST gene were expressed at higher concentration in leaves and matched with our chemical analysis in LC-MC that CBZ concentrate more in leaves. From my research result I recommend that we must take precautions from Crops such as lettuce and other plant that we consumed the leaves part, whose edible parts are the leaves because leaves part is highly absorbable of pharmaceutical compound epically carbamazepine which may effect on human healthy.
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Sanitation, Agricultural Sector, Chemicals
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