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- ItemELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF NITRATE ION BY MODIFIED ALUMINUM SHEETS AS ELECTROCATALYSTS: A NOVEL WATER TREATMENT METHOD(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-04-27) Eid, ShorooqBackground: Nitrate contamination of surface and ground water has been an issue in many places of the world, which has harmful effects on human health and the environment, were wrong human practices, whether it is industrial or agricultural, have contributed in raising the percentage of pollution allowed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) in water, which we have to find a solution to this problem. Aims: Our main goal of this study was to develop a simple, practical, and cost-effective method for reducing nitrate concentrations in aqueous solutions. Methods: In this study we tested Al electrode and different Al modification electrodes: Al-graphite, Al-graphene, Al-Cu, Al-Cu-graphite, Al-graphite-Cu to remove nitrate from water, by using nitrate electrochemical reduction experiments. Results: The products in these cases were NO2-, NH4+ and it’s expected to produce N2. The most efficient electrode was Al-Cu that can convert NO3- to N2 and the removal efficiency of nitrate 73.73%. The experiment of all electrodes was conducted on -1.8 volt. Conclusion: By studying the kinetics of reduction for Al-Cu, the results indicate that the nitrate electro-reduction is approximately first order with respect to nitrate. XRD was conducted for Al-Cu, Al-graphite and Al-Cu-graphite. Effects of several parameters on Al-Cu electrode efficiency in nitrate ion reduction, such as time and initial nitrate concentration, have been studied. Stability and the electrode material were also studied under experimental conditions. The possibility of reusing Al-Cu electrode again was investigated as well.
- ItemTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES AND PARTICIPATORY LEADERSHIP AMONG MEMBERS OF SPORTS FEDERATIONS IN PALESTINE(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-18) Abdelmajeed, TareqThe study aimed to identify the degree of practice of management by objectives and participatory leadership among members of sports federations in Palestine, and the relationship between management by objectives and participatory leadership. In addition, to identifying the differences in management by objectives and participatory leadership according to educational qualification, and administrative experience variables. To achieve that, the study was conducted on a random sample. consisting of (110) members of the sports federations in Palestine, representing approximately (35%) of the study population. Two instruments were applied, first one for measuring management by objectives (36) items, and the second for participatory leadership (30) items, and their validity and reliability were verified. The results revealed that the total degree of the use of participatory leadership among the members of the sports federations in Palestine was high with a relative weight of the response (77.05%), and the total degree of the use of participatory leadership among the members of the sports federations in Palestine was high with a relative weight of the response (80%), and a strong positive relationship Between management by objectives and participatory leadership reached (0.83), and the results showed that there are statistically significant differences at the significance level (α ≤ 0.05) in the total degree of both management by objectives and participatory leadership among members of sports federations in Palestine due to the variables of educational qualification and most of them In favor of a master's degree and above, and experience in favor of those with 10 years of experience and more. Based on the findings of the study the researcher recommended several recommendations, including the necessity of applying sports federations in Palestine to management by objectives and participatory leadership because of their positive impact on the success of the federations' work.
- ItemCONSTRUCTING NORMS OF SOME PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES AMONG PARTICIPANTS IN PHYSICAL FITNESS –HEALTH CENTERS AGED 20-30 YEARS(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-06-30) Qanees, MajdThe study aimed at identifying the level of some physical and physiological measurements and the possibility of building standard levels for them for Participants in Physical Fitness –Health Centers Aged 20-30 Years , and determining the relationship between them. (72) male affiliates, representing a percentage of (60%) and (48) female affiliates, representing a percentage of (40%), of various ages between (20-30 years), and the study sample represents a percentage of (40%) of the original study population, and after collecting the data, it was statistically treated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program, using means, standard deviations, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression. The results of the study revealed that the means of: hand grip, legs muscular strength, arms muscular strength, arms strength endurance, and abdominal muscles’ strength endurance in males were respectively: (48.92 kg, 2.64 m, 6.47 m, 48.39 times, 53.94 times), while the mean for physiological measurements (anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, maximum oxygen consumption, resting heart rate, resting metabolic rate, fats, lean body mass, cardiac index, lean body mass index, fat index) for males were, respectively: (43.93 kg.m/s, 37.51 kg.m/s, 47.41 milliliters/kg/min, 80.81 beats/min, 2100.86 calories per day, 12.89%, 62.87 kg, 2.24 liters. min/m², 21.44 kg/m², 3.47 kg/m². As for the means of physical measurements: (hand grip strength, legs muscular strength (long jump from stability), arms muscular strength (throwing the medicine ball), arms strength -endurance (push-up), abdominal strength endurance (Sit-up)) in females, they were Respectively: (25.09 kg, 1.82 m, 5.25 m, 23.92 times, 37.79 times).The means of physiological measures (maximum oxygen consumption, resting heart rate, resting metabolic rate, fat, lean body mass, cardiac index, lean body mass index, and fat index) for females were, respectively. : (25.54 kg.m/s, 21.01 kg.m/s, 23.37 ml/kg/min, 80.17 beats/min, 1506.40 calories per day, 25.83%, 45.03 kg, 2.60 liters. min/m², 17.65 kg/m², 5.95 kg/m2). Based on the results of the study, several recommendations were recommended, the most important of which are: Conducting similar studies on a broader scale for different age groups while addressing new variables. And circulating the study and its results to workers in health fitness centers to benefit from them.
- ItemSERVICES QUALITY IN PROFESSIONAL SOCCER CLUBS IN PALESTINE(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-03-24) Shadeh, MajdThe purpose of this study was to identify the degree of services quality in professional soccer clubs in Palestine, in addition to determine the differences in services quality according to variables of type of professionalism, current job, and place of club. To achieve that, the study was conducted on a stratified random sample including (251) players and administrators in qualifying professional soccer clubs, and represented approximately (34%) of the study population. The researcher used the descriptive- survey method for its compatibility with the study targets. Data were analyzed by using (SPSS) program and the level of significance was set at (0.05). The results of the study revealed that the degree of services quality in professional soccer clubs in Palestine was moderate, as the mean of response for the total score was (3.39). Also, there were statistically significant differences in the total score of services quality and its dimensions in professional soccer clubs in Palestine according to the variable of type of professionalism in favor of total professionalism. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in the total score of services quality and its dimensions in professional soccer clubs in Palestine according to the variable of current n favor of administrator. Finally, there were statistically significant differences in the total score of services quality and its dimensions in professional soccer clubs in Palestine according to the variable of place of club between (city) and (village, camp) in favor of (city), and no statistically significant differences in the total score of services quality and its dimensions were noticed between (village) and (camp). The study recommended several recommendations including the necessity to pay attention to financials aspects and the salaries of soccer players especially in the partial professional league, as well as conducting similar studies on other team sports such as volleyball, handball and basketball.
- ItemTHT PRINCIPLES OF THE BIDEN ADMINISTRATION APPROACH TOWARD THE PEACE PROCESS IN LIGHT THE INSTABILITY ISRAELI GOVERNMENTS(جامعة النجاح الوطنية, 2022-07-27) Nada, EhabThis study aimed to Clarify the determinants of the American approach to the Biden administration towards the peace process in light of the instability of the Israeli governments. For the purpose of the development and succession of events, research into their roots, examining their causes, and arriving at specific results regarding them, the retrospective approach shall be applied. The fact that the study of the foreign policy of the United States of America towards the peace process has historical roots and dimensions, and is based on determinants that stem from origins that extend to the depth of the relationship between the United States and Israel. The study came out with several results, most notably: The study believes that the Biden administration has internal and external challenges, which makes the Palestinian-Israeli conflict among the secondary priorities. Millions of jobs for American citizens and the provision of optimal health care for them. On the external level, there are files of great priority for the Biden administration, on top of which is the file of the Ukrainian crisis and the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine, And the changes that could result from it in the international system and the return of Russia to compete with the United States on the international and global levels. The ability of the Biden administration to achieve a breakthrough in the path of the Palestinian-Israeli settlement is very limited, and it collides with many obstacles, most notably the Israeli intransigence towards any solution to the conflict. The Biden administration is also governed by the unprecedented achievements made by his predecessor (Donald Trump) to Israel, such as moving the American embassy to Jerusalem, and its recognition As the capital of Israel, and rejecting the establishment of a Palestinian state within the borders of June 4, 1967.