Effect of Different Salinity Levels on In Vitro and Ex Vitro Growth of Potato

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Abu - Madi, Ahmed
Nawsreh, Ali
Arfat, Mutaz
Bani Odeh, Musab
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Solanum tuberosum cv. Sponta explants grown in vitro on MS media, , were subjected to 4 NaCl treatments. Meanwhile potato plants of two weeks age were subjected to the same levels of NaCl in the green house, growth and development of the plants and explants were analyzed. Plants were highly sensitive to salt treatment, both biomass and tuber production were influenced significantly. Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints that severely affect the productivity of agricultural crops in arid and semiarid regions Salt stress limits yield of crops by 1. Affecting the metabolism of plants and causes important modification in different biochemical and molecular processes (Allakhverdiev et al., 2000). 2. It can activate certain photosynthetic enzymes activity causing decomposition of membrane structures (Meloni et al., 2003). 3. Rate of photosynthesis and respiration in crop plants is severely interfered causing reduced plant growth and low productivity at high salts (Silva et al., 2001; Zhang et al., 2005; Fidalgo, 2004). 4. Higher level of salinity disrupts plant roots making water deficiency, nutrients imbalance by altering uptake and transport, ionic stress by higher Na + and Cl- accumulation, (Munns, 2002). 5. Severe yield reduction in many crops has also been reported by Zhu (2007). FAO suggested that approximately 6% of the world’s total arable and 20% of irrigated land is affected by high salinity (FAO, 2008). Extensive breeding and selection in potato for traits other than abiotic stress tolerance have resulted in cultivars that are considered moderately salt tolerant (FAO, 2010). The study of plant salt tolerance through tissue culture to identify crop sensitivity seems to be a fruitful and short time approach