The Effect of Different Dietary Patterns on Anthropometric Measurements Amongst Obese and overweight People Visiting different Dietetic Centres In West Bank: A Prospective Cohort Study

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Suleiman, Yousef
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جامعة النجاح الوطنية
Background Overweight and obesity are major public health problems and the most common nutritional disorders. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming level worldwide and Palestine shares world in this epidemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different diet patterns practised by Palestinians on body weight, as well to evaluate effect of different variables on weight loss. Methodology A prospective cohort study was conducted on 1368 participants (19.86% males and 81.14%females), data were collected from Nutrition centres in West Bank. In nutrition centres they used BOCA X1 body composition analyser to calculate LBM. The nutrition analysis for prescribed diet programmes was done by ESHA software. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 25. The body mass index (BMI) weekly changes for each participant were taken over 12 consecutive visits. All participants must have Initial BMI between 25 and 60. The duration of 1 diet pattern was between 7 to 9 days. Females participants must not be pregnant or lactating. The effect of 5-isocaloric dietary patterns namely; low carbohydrate diet (LCD), low fat diet (LFD), vegetarian diet (VD), intermittent fasting diet (IFD) and Mediterranean diet (MD), in addition to, gender, initial BMI, lean body mass (LBM), total dietary carbohydrate intake (TDCI) an dietary fibre intake (DFI) on BMI were evaluated using General linear model. Different one-way ANOVAs were conducted to compare the effect of the 5-dietary patterns on BMI, the effect of different dietary patterns in different weeks and the difference between males and females. Results The results indicated a significant effect (p-value<0.05) of the seven variables on BMI lowering. Being Males have more effect on lowering BMI (0.34) than female. BMI lowering effect has increased by (0.0021) for each one gram increase in daily fibre intake. Increasing LBM led to increase in BMI lowering by (0.001). BMI lowering effect was inversely related with TDC (0.0005). Initial BMI has correlated positively with BMI lowering effect (0.0046). With regard to week numbers(visit order), the results have shown that all dietary patterns had high decrease in BMI in the first week of visits, however, such lowering effect on BMI has gradually declined from week 2 through week 12. The BMI lowering of the first week was 0.5791 more than the 12th week. With regard to the 5-dietary patterns effect on lowering BMI, results from ANOVA have shown that LCD has the highest lowering effect on BMI while VD has the lowest lowering effect on BMI. The other 3-diet patterns IFD, MD and LFD have no significant difference between them on their BMI-lowering effect.The mean BMI change for each of the five diets pattern was LCD (0.3310 ±0.3291), LFD (0.2756 ± 0.3003), IFD (0.2658 ± 0.2961), MD (0.2627 ± 0.3230) and VD (0.2233 ± 0.2546). Conclusion Weight loss is positively affected by initial BMI, LBM and TDF. Males lose more weight than females .TDCI had negative effect on losing weight. It was concluded that short term weekly effect of diet patterns was obvious for all 5-dietary patterns however, LCD was the best especially in the first weeks of weight management. MD and IFD, were practically more sustainable for long term effect. Therefore, LCD can be recommended for initial stages of weight management to show weight loss. Time factor is important for all diet patterns as the weight loss was more in the first weeks and declined gradually