Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacological Activities of Various Fractions Derived from Ephedra Foeminea Aerial Parts
Background: Obesity is a major risk of chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. These diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to search for antiobesity therapeutics. Traditional folk remedies from plants are a potential source of natural alternatives of anti-obesity and consequently anti-diabetes medications. Antiobesity effect of Ephedra foeminea has never been investigated and consequently, we aim to investigate this. Methods: Qualitative Phytochemical analysis of acetone, hexane, methanol and aqueous fractions derived from ephedra foemineaaerial parts. Antioxidant activity of these fractions was assessed using DPPH (free radical) assay with Trolox as a positive control. Furthermore, anti-lipase, anti-amylase, anti glucosidase, and cytotoxic activities were evaluated employing colorimetric methods. Results: IC50 of antioxidant activity of acetone, hexane, aqueous and methanol fractions and Trolox reference was 154.88±0.39, 21.87±0.45, 41.68±0.46, 14.45±0.24 and 2.22±1.57 μg/ml respectively. IC50 of α-amylase inhibitory activities of acetone, hexane, aqueous and methanol fractions and acarbose reference was 13.8±0.67, 15.13±1.73, 14.79±1.31, 12.88±0.4 and 28.18±1.22 μg/ml respectively. IC50 of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of acetone, hexane, aqueous and methanol fractions and acarbose reference was 251.18±0.44, 194.98±0.21, 416.86±0.78, 117.48±0.35 and 41.68±0.34 μg/ml respectively. IC50 of lipase inhibitory activity of acetone, hexane, aqueous and methanol fractions and orlistat reference was 177.83±1.49, 104.7±1.74, 165.95±1.28 24.54±0.49 and 12.3±0.35 μg/ml respectively. The minimal quantity of acetone, hexane, aqueous and methanol fractions that induced cytotoxicity was 312, 312, 5000 and 20000 μg/ml. Conclusion: our data suggests that methanol fraction ofEphedra foemineahas the most potent antioxidant, anti-α-amylase, and anti-lipase activities and has no cytotoxic effect. This suggests that methanol fraction is a potential and safe source of therapeutically active compounds with anti-ob
Ephedra foeminea; α-amylase; α- glucosidase; anti-lipase; obesity; diabetes.