Extraction of Eryngium campestre (L.) Bioactive Compounds and Their Antimicrobial Activity

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Mahdi Mohammad Al_khawaja
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Medicinal plants are the richest biosource of pharmaceutically active compounds for traditional and modern systems of medicine. Aims of study:The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity against three gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and antifungal activity against Candida albicans of aqueous and organic extracts of Eryngium campestre (L.) Materials and methods: The well diffusion method was used to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous and organic extracts of E. campestre (L.). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal-fungicidal concentration (MBC-MFC) were determined by the serial dilution method. Results: The aqueous extract showed antibacterial activities using well diffusion method against all gram-positive bacteria with the greatest activity against Bacillus subtilis, its inhibition zone diameter was 18 mm {39.1% of the diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of Imipenem}, while Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were 12 mm (26.1%) and 8 mm (25%) respectively. In addition, it showed antibacterial activity against one gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa with inhibition zone diameter of 6 mm (23.1% of the DIZ of Imipenem). Using serial technique, of the stock concentration (50 mg/ml), the MIC values against all gram-positive bacteria, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were 0.2 mg/ml, 0.2 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml respectively of E. campestre (L.) extract, and the MIC values against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were 2 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml respectively, and against Candida was 0.02 mg/ml. There is bactericidal activity against all gram-positive bacteria, one gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and against Candida, all at MBC of 20 mg/ml of the stock concentration (50 mg/ml), but no bactericidal effect of E. campestre (L.) extract against E. coli. The organic extract showed almost the same antibacterial activity of aqueous extract except in that it had no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as it had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone diameter of 12 mm (33.3% of the DIZ of Imipenem).