Antimicrobial activities and phytochemical analysis of Verbascum fruticulosum
فارس, صالح سليم فهمي
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Background: Phenolic compounds are a group of secondary metabolites which are found in many medicinal plants and have a critical role in defense against pathogens and inhibiting different oxidative stress related diseases like cancer. This study screened Verbascum fruticulosum phytoconstituents and evaluated the total phenol, tannin, and flavonoid content. In addition, it evaluated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Methodology: Antioxidant activity was analysed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) method, while phyto-constituents, total phenols, tannins, and flavonoids were screened and evaluated using standard analytical methods for phytochemicals. Antimicrobrial activity was evaluated using a broth micro-dilution method against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella sonnei, Candida albicans, and a clinical isolate of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)., except Epidermophyton floccosum strain where was used agar dilution method. Results: The phytochemical screening showed that all extracts except n-hexane contained phenol and tannins. Only aqueous and acetone extracts contained flavonoids, so they had the highest antioxidant activity. Total phenol and flavonoid content was highest in acetone extracts, while methanolic extract showed the highest total tannin content. Antibacterial tests showed that the best inhibition activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were against P. arginosa with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1.56 mg/ml in both cases. Furthermore, the acetone extract also showed the highest inhibiting activity against S. aureus and E. coli with MICs of 6.25 mg/ml. Aqueous extract showed the highest inhibition activity against S. aureus (MRSA) with a MIC value of 3.125 mg/ml. The highest antibacterial activity of the methanol and n-hexane extracts were against E. faecium and S. sonnei with MICs of 3.125 mg/ml, in each respective assay. For antifungal inhibition the best activity was shown by the n-hexane extract against E. flacosum with a MIC value of 1.56 mg/ml. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts showed the highest level of antioxidant activity, methanol and acetone extracts showed the highest antibacterial activity. While, n-hexane was considered the best antifungal extract. High level of phenolic compounds found in Verbascum fruticulosum that could be included in new antibiotic and anti-cancer drugs designs.