THE INFLUENCE OF SMOKING AND OTHER LIFESTYLES ON MALE SEMEN QUALITY IN NABLUS GOVERNORATE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

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Date
2022-06-26
Authors
Salameh, Bara’
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Publisher
جامعة النجاح الوطنية
Abstract
Background: Infertility is the failure of a non-contracepting, sexually active couple to conceive within a year according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Male infertility is a serious health issue, not only in our society, affecting millions of people worldwide and accounts for 50% of all infertility cases. The proportion of cases linked to malefactors in the Middle East has risen to 70%. Males whose sperm parameters are lower than the WHO normal values have male factor infertility. Many causes lead to infertility in men, including physical problems, hormonal disorders, psychological issues, lifestyle problems, environmental factors, sex problems, single-gene defects, and chromosomal abnormalities. Aims: This study aims to determine the correlation between smoking and some lifestyles (drinks like energy drinks, coffee and tea intake, nature of food as high sugar intake, processed and canned food, fruits and vegetables, obesity, antioxidant and vitamin intake) and male semen quality in Nablus district. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among men in Nablus. A total number of 168 samples were collected from the consented volunteers. A convenience sampling technique was conducted from October 2021 to February 2022, the samples were collected from the main semen analysis provider laboratories in the Nablus area, namely, the Central Medicare lab, Consulting Medical Laboratory – Jammain, and Professional lab branches (Nablus, Hawara, Qabalan), Med lab, Al Rahma clinic, and the Central lab in Hawara. A self-administered questionnaire was introduced in the present study for data collection. Results: The study showed that the highest age groups of study participants were 21-30 years (54.8%), 72% of the study participants now live in the village while 22% live in the city and only 6% live in a camp. There is a relationship between waterpipe smoking and liquefaction time. Both obesity and high sugar intake relate to agglutination. There is a relationship between obesity and processed and canned food and progressive motility, and between fruit and vegetables and semen volume and progressive motility. According to drinks intake, participants who drink more than 3 cups of tea daily will impair or reduce sperm motility, count, and morphology. Both coffee and energy drinks intake have an association with sperm count. There is a link between antioxidants or vitamins and sperm morphology (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion: The seminal fluid analysis determines the quality of semen as seminal density, sperm count, morphology, and motility, it is the most crucial stage and diagnostic technique to determine fertility. Waterpipe smoking and lifestyles (using drinks like energy drinks, coffee and tea intake, nature of food as high sugar intake, processed and canned food, fruits and vegetables, obesity, antioxidant and vitamin intake) may affect semen quality (agglutination, liquefaction time, sperm count, motility, and morphology).
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Keywords
Male infertility, semen analysis, smoking, lifestyles, Nablus, Palestine
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